representing letter clusters, rime families, word structures
longer to retrieve names and sounds of letters, clusters, words;
slower naming speed (RAN) due to
a difficulty activating a sound code for the written word (slower
naming speed + average phonological awareness ---> impaired
orthographic skill of immature
phonological awareness deficit - 'double-deficit hypothesis of
not develop the capacity to learn an
orthographic code; ability to manipulate identified sounds
rather than letter-sound links that causes problems.
immature grammar, lower syntactic awareness, predicts later reading
sentence propositions (how meanings are linked), punctuation,
written sentence structure
verbal short-term working memory
predicts reading; difficulty retaining verbal but not nonverbal
information briefly, take longer to retrieve verbal information
from long-term, name information memory more slowly, use memory
strategies inefficiently, less likely to use rehearsal, elaboration,
improves auditory (but not visual) short-term memory.
are less likely to use:
range of strategies such as visualising and paraphrasing, re-read,
ask questions about the ideas, retelling
structure knowledge to generate expectations prior to reading
and to organise text information while reading,
questions to assist them to comprehend
and remember the text read,
and infer while reading or to summarise as readily.
differ in how they organize and use prior knowledge, more likely to
have knowledge organised in episodes with contextual links rather
than in networks similar to text links, paragraph propositions etc.
are less likely to:
prior content or text structure when reading
text data in working memory or
or elaborate the information, summarise, or to anticipate ideas
They comprehend when cued to use
advance organisers that stimulate their existing knowledge.
and control strategies
Students with reading disabilities are 'non strategic or passive'
readers; they are less likely to direct and regulate the use of
reading strategies, to:
when and why to use each,
its effectiveness in terms of some goal or purpose
our reading, initiate corrective action, decide when to re-read,
self-correct, how they use what they know at each level, monitor
how their reading is progressing, take further strategic action
and self-question to see whether reading goals achieved, review
or consolidate what they have read
the information gained from reading to fit our purposes for reading
they can learn to read (self efficacy)
Disabled readers may have difficulty
word level, learning how words are said ("crinimal"
for 'criminal' ), less aware of sounds in words, remembering names
of items, particularly RAN, poorer concept of word --> building
a word bank, smaller expressive vocabularies, difficulty learning
word meanings and a less developed network
of word meanings (they use context but not as efficiently
to induce the meanings of unfamiliar words).
sentence level, reading underachievers have difficulty understanding
complex grammatical forms in oral comprehension
conceptual level, how ideas are linked into themes
topic or theme level, how a theme is communicated in a narrative,
the pragmatic or dispositional level, how the social context
affects how ideas are communicated, the attitudes and values of
the writer towards the ideas in the text.
visual imagery knowledge
input to the knowledge base and
motor aspects of expressive language
input; auditory perceptual processes for perceiving speech patterns